Common Terminology/Just So You Know

A system’s ability to determine the actions and behavior of a single individual within a system, and to identify that particular individual.

Authorized Software:
Software owned or licensed and used in accordance with the software license or software approved for use by the agency for a specific job function.

Ensures the reliable and timely access to data or computing resources by the appropriate personnel.

Restriction from disclosure, intentionally or unintentionally, to unauthorized persons, processes or devices.

A legal protection of intellectual property that is provided for by the laws of the United States to the owners of copyright including, but not limited to, literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, pictorial, graphic, film, multi-media works, software, digital works, and unpublished materials.

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) is the federal law that prohibits the copying and/or distribution of digital copyrighted material without permission from the owner.

A safeguard used to control access between a trusted network and a less trusted one; a strategy for protecting an organization’s Internet-reachable resources.

Any event, suspected event or attempted action that could pose a threat to the integrity, availability, confidentiality, or accountability of an IT System. Incidents include an attempted security breach, IT System disruption or outage.

Data uniquely labeling a user to a system.

Identity Theft:
Crime in which an imposter obtains key pieces of a person's information such as Social Security Number, driver's license numbers and other such items and uses it for their own personal gain. This can include obtaining credit, goods, services, money, or property.

Freedom from corruption or unauthorized modification; internal and external consistency.

IT Systems:
Automated systems: communications systems including wireless systems, computer systems, hardware and software, application systems, networks, workstations, servers, personal digital assistants and data on the IT System.

Short for malicious (or malevolent) software, is software used or created by attackers to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware, and other malicious programs.

A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables, used to transmit or receive information.

Peer-To-Peer File Sharing:
The practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images, and video), documents, or electronic books directly between users.

Typically an email scam which tries to trick people into thinking a legitimate organization is requesting private information. These scams request you to either reply, or follow a link to a site that often looks identical to the service the email is mimicking. Banks, E-bay, and PayPal are traditional targets.

Sensitive Information:
Data pertaining to individuals or organizations that, if released, could cause harm.

Unwanted electronic communication, often considered junk e-mail. Majority spam is related to commercial advertising promoting questionable products or services often to commit identity theft or other types of fraud over the internet.

Spear Phishing:
Type of scam that targets a specific organization in an attempt to trick people into revealing private information. Often, those sending out the scams have researched the targeted organization for names the organization uses, practices, and other details to lend their scams an air of authenticity. Some spear phishing emails may look identical to an announcement you may expect from that organization.

Program that makes copies of itself, attaches to other programs, and performs unwanted or malicious actions when it runs. They are designed to corrupt and delete data or spread themselves to other computers.